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High-resolution spectrograph FRODOSpec receives upgrade 7 December 2015
FRODOSpec Red Old/New CCD Spectrum of Tungsten Lamp

The Liverpool Telescope's high resolution fibre-fed spectrograph FRODOSpec received a CCD detector upgrade in October which brought two major benefits - increased sensitivity and a large reduction in fringing.

FRODOSpec allows the simultaneous spectrographic observation of the red and blue parts of the optical spectrum, by seperating the incoming beam of light with a beam splitter and sending the two beams down separate "arms", each with their own optics and CCD detectors. What's changed is the "red arm"'s CCD detector; the original unit was replaced with a deep depletion version during the most recent site maintenance visit in October.

Tests made afterwards during recommissioning reveal that throughput has increased by as much as 100% for some wavelengths. The plot above right shows the spectra of FRODOSpec's calibration tungsten lamp made with the old and new CCDs. Throughput is improved for all wavelengths and shows greatest increase of ~100% around 9000 Angstroms.

Fringing before & after

The plot also shows the great reduction in fringing with this new CCD. Fringing is caused by light reflecting inside the CCD itself - slight variations in substrate thickness create an interference pattern that for CCDs is most visible in the red end of the optical spectrum (see Newton's Rings for a full explanation of this effect). Although the fringe pattern is largely fixed from one observation to the next and so can be compensated for to some extent, it can still complicate data analysis. The new CCD however has a different layer structure designed to prevent fringing. This is readily apparent in the closeup FRODOSpec red arm images at right; fringing is greatly reduced in the new CCD.

Overall, this CCD upgrade coupled with the telescope secondary mirror realuminisation means more objects are now within range of FRODOSpec than ever before.

LT Public Data Archive Exceeds Two Million Files 18 September 2015
SPRAT slitless image of Cat's Eye nebula
False-colour slitless spectrum of Cat's Eye nebula (NGC 6543). This image was taken using the SPRAT spectrograph in "slitless" mode, where its slit is out of the way, but the grating and prism remains in the telescope beam, producing wavelength-shifted imagery. Image derived by Robert Smith from engineering data created during final SPRAT commissioning. © 2015 LJMU

The latest Liverpool Telescope public data release consisted of 118,474 new files, including both spectra and images spanning from the ultraviolet u’-band to the H-band infrared, bringing the total number of observations freely available from the archive to over two million.

There are now over 13,000 hours’ worth of observing data available, 9960 hours imaging and 1636 hours spectroscopy. Most targets have been observed a few times, going back to the start of LT operations in 2004, but some fields, such as the photometric standards, have time series consisting of thousands of observations.

NGC 3187
NGC 3190 and NGC 3187 that are included in the most recent data relase. © 2015 LJMU

Public access to research data is important for both data mining of historical observations and wider community engagement. This is especially true for a time domain facility where there is a wealth of information stored in the time series data that come from the Liverpool Telescope. We therefore invest a lot of effort in maintaining the LT data archive and encourage all those interested in time domain astrophysics to make use of the archive in their research. Please contact us if there are any ways in which we can help increase the impact of this facility on their programmes.

LT maintenance: mirrors realuminised and throughput doubled 05 August 2015

The middle of June saw the Liverpool Telescope (LT) go offline for two and a half weeks, to successfully undertake important scheduled maintenance. The main item in the to-do list was to realuminise the telescope's primary and secondary mirrors. This difficult task was performed outstandingly, and the results were clear to see, in that the throughput of the telescope was doubled - i.e. twice as much light now enters the telescope's detectors as before.

Why realuminise?
Image © 2015 J. Marchant

"Normal" household mirrors that we're used to every day have their reflective (usually silver) layer deposited chemically on the back of a sheet of glass, and then another layer of paint is applied on top. This sandwiches the metal between glass and paint, protecting it and making sure it stays reflective for the lifetime of the mirror. This is what's known as a "second surface" mirror, because the reflecting layer is on the second surface away from the viewer, i.e. the back of the glass. The first surface on the other hand is the front of the glass.

For everyday use this kind of mirror is fine, but you wouldn't be happy using it in a telescope. That's because light has to pass through the glass twice, once on the way in and again on the way back out. The glass not only absorbs some of the light (which you don't want when looking at faint objects), but also causes multiple reflections which hamper sensitive measurements.

That's why astronomers prefer to use "first surface" mirrors in their telescopes instead. As you may have guessed already, this is where the metal is deposited on the front of the glass. The metal in this case is usually aluminium, and it's evaporated onto the glass in a huge vacuum chamber. The layer ends up around 350 atoms thick, which for aluminium is about 100 nanometres, about the same thickness as gold leaf and 160,000 times thinner than kitchen foil.

This fragile coating is exposed to the air and any contaminants that might fall on it, but that disadvantage is far outweighed by the fact that light does not have to pass through any glass in front, resulting in a much clearer and brighter image. We should not leave out the even more important fact that the glass substrate itself is carefully shaped and polished to a precise figure to focus the light in the exact manner required. This shaping is by far the most difficult part of telescope mirror manufacture.

Over time, dust (especially "calima" blown from the nearby Sahara Desert) builds up and adheres to the aluminium, degrading its reflectivity. Periodic cleaning is not 100% perfect, and eventually after several years it is better to realuminise the mirror instead. This involves taking the mirror out of the telescope, and removing the aluminium with acid. The glass "blank" is then carefully cleaned, and put inside a huge vacuum chamber where a new layer is evaporated onto it in a carefully controlled manner.

Very conveniently, one of the many telescopes on the mountaintop has their own realuminising plant. The William Herschel Telescope (WHT) stands just 500 metres away from the LT, and its vacuum chamber was built to accommodate their 4-metre diameter primary mirror. The WHT staff very kindly agreed to realuminise our mirrors, and provided expert crane operators and equipment to help us move our sensitive optics over to their site.

Moving the mirrors
primary mirror
LT Engineering Manager Stuart Bates by the primary mirror.
(Photo © 2015 M. Crellin)

The LT's primary mirror is a precision-crafted disc of glass two metres in diameter and 20cm thick, weighing in at 1.3 tonnes. Extracting such a large and heavy piece of sensitive equipment from the base of the LT, without scratching it or causing any damage at all, was a particularly tense time. As expected though, on-site personnel performed the task expertly. They were site manager and senior mechanical engineer Stuart Bates, mechanical engineer Mark Crellin, LT site engineer Dirk Raback, and crane operators and engineers from the WHT. The primary mirror was slid out from underneath the telescope in its mirror cell and immediately covered in lint-free tissue to protect it and prevent dangerous reflections. It was then carefully lifted off the mirror cell into a special padded transit box, and then hoisted out of the top of the open enclosure.

Meanwhile, the secondary mirror was also earmarked for realuminisation. This was the first time the secondary had been treated since the LT was built in 2003. The reason for the delay was that the secondary had been coated with a thin layer of silicate to protect the aluminium, and until recently, removing this layer to get at the metal without damaging the glass substrate underneath was a prohibitively expensive and difficult task.

primary mirror
Dirk Raback, Stuart Bates and Mark Crellin at the top of the telescope.
(Photo © 2015 N. Clay)

This year however, the very expert who applied the silicate coating all those years ago was available to remove it again in person. David Jackson is now retired, but was happy to come to La Palma and help. So, the telescope's top end ring was lifted off the and placed in a special holding rig. The mirror was then removed and placed in another transit box to be taken to the WHT's plant along with the primary.


At the plant, the primary's aluminium layer was carefully removed with powerful acids under strict safety supervision. After that, the glass was washed and carefully dried to ensure not a speck of dust remained on the surface. Finally, the glass "blank" was placed in the WHT's huge realuminising chamber.

primary mirror
David Jackson (left) and Jürg Rey cleaning the primary glass before realuminising. (Photo © 2015 N. Clay)

Meanwhile, under the expert guidance of David Jackson, Jürg Rey, head of operations at the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes, was able to successfully remove the silicate layer on the secondary mirror without damaging the glass underneath. Now the silicate was gone, the aluminium layer underneath could be removed in the same way as the primary. The secondary glass blank was then cleaned, and it took its place next to the primary in the WHT's cavernous aluminising chamber.

primary mirror
New primary being reinstalled.
(Photo © 2015 N. Clay)

Aluminising went without a hitch, and the next day the equally careful task of transporting the freshly-coated mirrors back to the Liverpool Telescope began. On-site, the secondary was replaced in its mounting and the top-end ring hoisted back onto the top of the telescope. The 1.3-tonne primary in its transit box was lifted back into the enclosure, then taken out of the box and placed to submillimetre precision back onto the pneumatic actuators in the mirror cell.

Increased throughput

Over the next two days the rest of the telescope was put back together and all instruments remounted, in time for LT Director Iain Steele, Operations Scientist Jon Marchant and PhD student Helen Jermak to fly out from Liverpool to undertake recommissioning.

The telescope had had its major optical components dismantled and reassembled, and all instruments had been removed and remounted. So from 27 June to 1 July, a full end-to-end test of the telescope's electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic and optical systems was made, along with similar tests for each instrument. This lengthy sequence of tests proved the telescope was operating nominally and that all of its instruments were in focus and working properly.

primary mirror Factor increase in throughput
by IO:O filter
(Image © 2015 J. Marchant)

One of the first things that became apparent during recommissioning was that the throughput of the telescope had improved by a greater margin than anticipated. Helen Jermak performed tests through IO:O filters to show that on average, twice as much light reaches detector sensors than before, depending on filter. The greatest increase (a factor of 223%) is in the SDSS-U filter, while the least increase (a factor of 163%) is in SDSS-Z. This general trend of greatest increase in the blue part of the optical spectrum is a sign that it was finally being able to realuminise the secondary mirror that caused most of the improved throughput.

Realuminising was not the only task on this maintenance visit. DevOps engineer Neil Clay also came to site and undertook timely and crucial maintenance on the telescope's entire IT system, as well as repairs and maintenance to the weather mast and its sensors. The 1-degree FOV Skycam Z was overhauled too, its 20cm primary mirror being realuminised along with the LT's. Being so relatively small, there was no problem finding room for it in the WHT's huge aluminising chamber.

Summing up, the three-week programme of site work and support from the UK was very successful. A big thank you goes to LT staff both on-site and on backup in the UK, Mark Crellin, David Jackson, Helen Jermak, and Jürg Rey and the WHT staff.

When stars collide: LJMU team identifies rare luminous red nova in Andromeda 1600 GMT 5 May 2015

M31 RN Light-curves obtained by imaging M31LRN 2015 over a number of weeks through seven different filters. Data from the LT (filled circles) are combined with observations from other telescopes (open circles). The x-axis shows time in days; the y-axis is the brightness of the nova, in magnitudes.

In January 2015 the discovery of a possible classical nova in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) was announced by the Global MASTER Robotic Network, a Russian-led network of telescopes dedicated to time domain astronomy. Classical novae are not particularly rare events, with around 30 observed each year in M31 alone. However, as the LJMU team of Dr Steven Williams, Dr Matt Darnley, Prof. Mike Bode and Prof. Iain Steele were soon to realise, the object in M31 was a much more unusual object. By following the outburst with the Liverpool Telescope's new spectrometer SPRAT and its work-horse imager IO:O, Williams and co. demonstrated that the outburst - dubbed M31LRN 2015 - was not a classical nova, but was instead a luminous red nova (LRN), a much less common class of stellar transient.

Classical novae are thought to be associated with binary star systems. They result from a burst of nuclear fusion on the surface of a white dwarf (a very compact dense star about the size of the sun), as material spirals down onto the white dwarf from its larger companion star. By comparison, the nature of luminous red novae is still uncertain. A growing body of evidence suggests that they may be the result of two stars merging together, causing a sudden explosion and a very dramatic brightening of the system.

The study of these systems as a class of transient only really began with the 2002 outburst of V838 Mon in our Milky Way galaxy, when astronomers noticed that it behaved differently to classical novae. The characteristics of the V838 Mon outburst event were found to be similar to the luminous red nova identified in M31 in 1988, and to V4332 Sgr, a similar type of outburst which occurred in the Milky Way in 1994.

The first SPRAT spectrum of M31LRN 2015, taken three days after its discovery and before the outburst had reached peak brightness, shows that it initially exhibited strong hydrogen emission lines (labelled Hα below). These hydrogen lines weakened over time and the spectra then began to show various absorption features, its spectrum resembling a cool supergiant!

The outburst was also followed with IO:O using different coloured (B, V, i' and z'-band) filters. These observations showed that after reaching its peak brightness, the luminous red nova faded quickly in the bluer filters, but remained bright in the redder filters for several weeks.

An IO:O image of the outburst was used to precisely determine the position of the system. The team then searched the Hubble Space Telescope data archives and found an image of the object, taken in 2004, prior to the recent outburst. The data show that the likely progenitor star of M31LRN 2015 was consistent with a red giant. Interestingly, the object appears to show evidence of hydrogen emission many years prior to the outburst, although the source of this emission is not clear. Further observations of this and other systems are certainly warranted. Astronomers clearly have some way to go before these enigmatic objects are fully understood.

All of the LT observations of M31LRN 2015 and the archival study of its progenitor have recently been published in Williams et al. (2015).

Sprat spectrum

Top: SPRAT spectra of M31LRN 2015 taken on Jan 16, Feb 2, Feb 12 and Feb 28, 2015. The LRN was at its brightest between the first and second spectrum. Emission and absorption lines from a number of atoms and ions have been labelled. Bottom: Three spectra of a similar type of object, V838 Mon, displayed for comparison purposes.